Narration Rules বা Narration এর নিয়ম (সহজ ও শর্টকাট পদ্ধতি)

Narration এর নিয়ম। বাংলায় Sentence ও Passage Narration Rules সহজে বোঝার উপায়। এছাড়াও Tense ও Person পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম সহ সব কিছু বিস্তারিত দেখুন আমাদের এই পোস্টে।

Narration কাকে বলে?

Speech শব্দের অর্থ “বক্তৃতা”। আর Narration শব্দের অর্থ “বর্ণনা”। এই দুটি শব্দ একই অর্থ নির্দেশ করে। 

অর্থাৎ কোনো ব্যক্তি কথা বলার সময় যা যা বলে তাই মূলত Speech/Narration. 

সুতরাং বক্তা যা বলে তাকে Speech বা Narration বলে


Speech/Narration কত প্রকার?

Speech দুই প্রকার। যথা:

  1. Direct Speech (প্রত্যক্ষ উক্তি)
  2. Indirect Speech (পরোক্ষ উক্তি)

Direct Speech কাকে বলে?

যখন কোনো কথাকে পরিবর্তন না করে অবিকল সে ভাষায় বলা হয় তখন তাকে Direct Speech/Narration বলে

উদাহরণ:

  • Direct Speech: Jamil said to me, “I am a good student.”

এখানে Jamil তার নিজের ব্যাপারে বলছে যে “I am a good student.” আমরা চাইলে পরিবর্তন করে বলতে পারতাম “He was a student.”

কিন্তু এখানে পরিবর্তন করা হয়নি। অবিকল Jamil এর ভাষায় বলা হয়েছে। তাই এটি Direct Speech.

Direct Speech দুটি অংশ থাকে। যথা:

Narration এর নিয়ম direct speech

  1. Reporting Verb: Inverted Comma (“  ”) এর ভিতের অংশকে Reported Speech বলে। (উপরে “I am a good student.” হলো Reported Speech.)
  2. Reported Speech: যে Verb দ্বারা বক্তব্য প্রকাশ করা হয় তাকে Reporting Verb বলে। (এখানে said হলো Reporting Verb.)

Indirect Speech কাকে বলে?

যখন কোনো কথাকে পরিবর্তন করে ব্যক্ত করা হয় তখন তাকে Indirect Speech/Narration বলে

উদাহরণ:

  • Indirect Speech: Jamil said to me that he was a good student.

পূর্বের Direct Speech-এর উদাহরণে আমারা দেখেছিলাম যে, Jamil তার নিজের ব্যাপারে বলেছিল যে “I am a good student.”

কিন্তু উপরের উদাহরণে আমারা দেখতে পাচ্ছি যে, Jamail এর কথা পরিবর্তিত হয়ে বলা হয়েছে ‘he was a good student.’

সুতরাং Jamil এর কথা পরিবর্তন করে ব্যক্ত করায় আমারা এটিকে Indirect Speech বলতে পারি।


Rule 1: Reporting Verb ও Inverted Comma-এর পরিবর্তন

SentenceReporting Verb (Said) এর পরিবর্তে বসেInverted Comma-এর পরিবর্তে বসে
Assertivesaid/toldthat
Interrogativeaskedif/wh-word
Imperativeordered (আদেশ), advised (উপদেশ), , forbade (নিষেধ), requested (অনুরোধ), proposed (প্রস্তাব)to/not to/that
Optativewished(ইচ্ছা), prayed (প্রার্থনা)that 
Exclamatoryexclaimed with joy/sorrowthat

Rule 2: Person পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম

1. First Person পরিবর্তন হয় Subject অনুযায়ী

উদাহরণ:

narration rules first person এর পরিবর্তন

এখানে First Person (I) থাকায় Reporting verb-এর Subject (Rafiq) কে অনুসরণ করে। আর Rafiq একজন ছেলে। তাই “I” এর পরিবর্তে “he” বসেছে।

ব্যতিক্রম: “We” দ্বারা মানবজাতি বুঝালে বা  “We” যদি বক্তা ও যাকে উদ্দেশ্য করে উভয়কে বুঝায় তবে Indirect Speech-এ “We” পরিবর্তন হয় না। যেমন:

Direct: The teacher said, “We are mortal.” 
Indirect:
The teacher said that we are mortal.

Direct: He said to me, ” We should do our duty.”
Indirect:
He said to me that we should do our duty.


2. Second Person পরিবর্তন হয় Object অনুযায়ী

উদাহরণ:

narration second person এর পরিবর্তন

উপরে Second Person (You) থাকায় Reporting verb-এর Object (me) কে অনুসরণ করে। আর “me” এর Subjective Form হচ্ছে “I”। তাই এখানে “You” এর পরিবর্তে “I” বসেছে।


3. Third Person পরিবর্তন হয় না

উদাহরণ:

narration third person এর পরিবর্তন

এখানে Third Person (He) এর পরিবর্তে he বসেছে। অর্থাৎ Narration এর নিয়মে Third Person এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হয় না।


Rules 3: Narration এর Tense পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম

Narration এর নিয়ম অনুয়ায়ী নিম্নোক্ত পদ্ধতিতে Tense পরিবর্তন করতে হয়। তবে তুমি চাইলে পরের টেবিল থাকে শর্টকাট পদ্ধতি দেখে নিতে পারো।

DirectIndirect
Present IndefinitePast Indefinite
Present ContinuousPast Continuous
Present PerfectPast Perfect
Present Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
Past IndefinitePast Perfect
Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous

Tense পরিবর্তনের শর্টকাট নিয়ম

Tense সম্পর্কে স্পষ্ট ধারনা না থাকলেও নিম্নের Verb গুলো পরিবর্তন করলেই Tense পরিবর্তন হয়ে যাবে।

DirectIndirect
am/iswas
arewere
was/werehad been
have/hashad
V1(Present Form)V2(Past Form)
V2(Past Form)had+V3
didhad+V3
shall/willwould
cancould
maymight
musthad to

Note: সাধারণত must থাকলে had to বসে। তবে কোনো কাজ চিরকালীন বাধ্যবাধকতা বোঝালে must এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হবে না। যেমন “You must obey your parents.” (আপনাকে অবশ্যই আপনার পিতামাতাকে মান্য করতে হবে।) এই বাক্যে must চিরকালীন বাধ্যবাধকতা বোঝায়। কেননা আমাদের সব সময় বাবা-মাকে মান্য করতে হয়। তাই এই বাক্যে must এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হবে না।


Rule 4: নিকটবর্তী Word সমূহের পরিবর্তন

DirectIndirectDirectIndirect
NowThenThisThat
TodayThat dayTheseThose
To nightThat nightHereThere
TomorrowThe next dayAgoBefore
YesterdayThe previous dayComeGo
Last nightThe previous nightThusSo
Next weekThe following weekHitherThither
Sir/MadamrespectfullyHereThere
Yes/OK/Sure etc.replied in the affirmative and said thatNoreplied in the negative and said that

Rule 5: Sentence Narration এর নিয়ম

Assertive Sentence

গঠন: Subject+ told/said+ Object+ that+ Subject(RS)+ Verb(RS)+ বাকী অংশ।

Direct: Samira said to me, “I am reading a novel.”
Indirect:
Samira told me that she was reading a novel.

Direct: The teacher said to me, “You are wrong”.
Indirect:
  The teacher told me that I was wrong. 

Direct: Hasan said to me, “I lived many years in Dhaka.”
Indirect:
Hasan told me that he had lived many years in Dhaka.

Direct:  He said, “I will do my homework”.
Indirect:
He said that he would do his homework.

Direct: Ruma said, “My father will go home tomorrow.”
Indirect:
Ruma said that her father would go home the next day.

Direct: Kamal said to Sabbir, “I went to your home.”
Indirect:
Kamal told Sabbir that he(Kamal) had gone to his(Sabbir) home.”


Interrogative Sentence 

গঠন 01: Subject+ asked+ Object+ Wh-word+ Verb+ Subject(RS)+ Verb(RS)+ বাকী অংশ। [ Wh-word দ্বারা শুরু হলে।]

Direct: He said to his father, “What are you doing?”
Indirect: He asked his father what he (f) was doing.

Direct: He said to me, “Where do you live?”
Indirect: He asked me where I lived.

Direct: Sohel said to Rasel, “What are you doing?”
Indirect: Sohel asked Rasel what he(R) was doing.

Direct: The teacher said to the boys, “Why are you making a noise?”
Indirect: The teacher asked the boys why they were making a noise.

গঠন 02: Subject+ asked+ Object+ if+ Subject(RS)+ Verb(RS)+ বাকী অংশ। [ Auxiliary Verb  দ্বারা শুরু হলে]

Direct: Premul said to his sister, “Will you go to school?”
Indirect:
Premul asked his sister if she would go to school.

Direct: Mohammad said to Imran, “Do you like to read poetry?
Indirect:
Mohammad asked Imran if he(M) liked to read poetry.

Direct: He said to me, “Are you reading my book?”
Indirect:
He asked me if I was reading his book.

Direct: Najma said to him, “Have you taken my pen.”
Indirect:
Najma asked him if he had taken her pen.

Direct: Runa said to Sumi, “Will you meet me tomorrow?”
Indirect:
Runa asked Sumi if she(S) would meet her(R) the next day.


Imperative Sentence

গঠন 01: Subject + ordered(আদেশ)/ advised(উপদেশ)/ forbade(নিষেধ)/ requested (অনুরোধ)+ Object+ to/not to+ Verb(RS)+ বাকী অংশ। [Main Verb দ্বারা শুরু হলে।]

Direct: The teacher said to the student, “Get out of the classroom.”
Indirect: The teacher ordered the student to get out of the classroom.

Direct: He said to me, “Please give me a glass of water.”
Indirect: He requested me to give him a glass of water.

Curt: Mother said to me, “Always speak the truth.”
Indirect: Mother advised me to speak the truth always.

Direct: The teacher said to the student, “Don’t miss the class.”
Indirect: The teacher forbade the student not to miss the class.


গঠন 02: Subject+ proposed/suggested + Object + that+ Subject(RS) + should + Verb(RS)+ বাকি অংশ। [Let দ্বারা শুরু হলে।]

Direct: He said to me, “Let us go out for a walk.”
Indirect: He proposed to me that we should go out for a walk.

Direct: He said to me, “Let them play football.”
Indirect: He proposed to me that they should play football.


Optative Sentence

গঠন: Subject + wished/prayed + that + Subject(RS) + may/might + Verb (RS) + বাকি অংশ।

Direct: Father said to me, “May you pass the examination.”
Indirect: Father prayed that I might pass the examination.

Direct: The teacher said to the students, “May Allah bless you.”
Indirect: The teacher wished that Allah might bless the students.


Exclamatory Sentence

গঠন: Subject + exclaimed with joy/exclaimed with sorrow + that + Subject(RS) + Verb(RS) + very/great( যদি How বা What দ্বারা শুরু হয়) + বাকী অংশ।

Direct: The students said, “Hurrah! Our team has won the game.”
Indirect: The students exclaimed with joy that their team had won the game.

Direct: The man said, “Alas! I am undone.”
Indirect: The man exclaimed with sorrow that he was undone.

Direct: Silvia said, “What a fine bird it is.”
Indirect: Silvia exclaimed with joy that it was a very fine bird.


Rule 6: Passage Narration এর নিয়ম

1. “Thank” যুক্ত বাক্যের পরিবর্তন

গঠন: Subject+ thanked+ Object.

Direct: Rahim said to Imran, “Thank you.”
Indirect: Rahim thanked Imran.


2. Good-bye এর পরিবর্তন

গঠন: Subject+ bade+ Object+ good-bye.

Direct: He said to me, “Good-bye.”
Indirect: He bade me good-bye.


3. Good morning/evening/night এর পরিবর্তন

গঠন: Subject+ wished+ Object+ good morning/evening/night ইত্যাদি।

Direct: He said to me, “Good morning.”
Indirect: He wished me good morning.


4. সম্বোধন সূচক শব্দ থাকলে

গঠন: Addressing me/him/her/them as+ সম্বোধন সূচক শব্দ+ Sentence অনুয়াযী গঠন।

Direct: Rahim said, “Friends, I have read a book.”
Indirect: Addressing them as friends, Rahim said that he had read a book.


5. একাধিক বাক্য একসাথে হলে

Assertive Sentence:

  1. প্রথম বাক্যে – said/told
  2. দ্বিতীয় বাক্যে –  added that/also said that
  3. তৃতীয় বাক্যে – further added that

Direct: Jamal said to Raihan, “You are very honest. I will trust you forever.”
Indirect: Jamal said to Raihan that he(R) was very honest and added that he(K) would trust him(R) forever.

Interrogative Sentence:

  1. প্রথম বাক্যে – asked
  2. দ্বিতীয় বাক্যেalso asked
  3. পুনরায় প্রশ্ন করলে – again asked

Direct: The teacher said to me, “What is your problem? Are you trying to solve the math?
Indirect: The teacher asked me what my problem was. He(T) also asked if I was trying to solve the math.


6. By Allah/ By God এর পরিবর্তন

  • By Allah/ By God এর পরিবর্তে Swearing by Allah বসে
  • পরের অংশ Sentence অনুযায়ী হয়।

Direct: By Allah, he said to me, “He will do the work.”
Indirect: Swearing by Allah, he told me that he would do the work.


7. চিরন্তন সত্য বাণী থাকলে Tense এর পরিবর্তন হয় না।

Direct: He said to me, “Honesty is the best policy.”
Indirect: He told me that honesty is the best policy.

Note: কথার প্রেক্ষাপটে মাঝে মধ্যে then এবং প্রশ্নের উত্তরে said that এর জায়গায় replied that ব্যবহার করতে হবে।


Passage Narration with Answer

Question No 02: Rina said to Sima, “Why don’t you get up early from sleep?” Sima said, “It is tough for me to leave bed early.” “Alas! It is a bad habit,” said Rina, “If you leave bed early, you can enjoy sound health. Follow my advice.” [Dhaka, Sylhet Board-2020]

Answer: Rina asked Sima why she (S) did not get up early from sleep. Sima replied that it was tough for her to leave bed early.  Rina exclaimed with sorrow that it was a bad habit. She (R) added that if she (S) left bed early, she (S) could enjoy sound health. She (R) also ordered her (S) to follow her (R) advice.

Question No 02: “Where do you like to go sir?” asked the ticket seller. “Cox’s Bazar,” replied the stranger. “How many tickets do you need?” “I will buy five tickets.” “Take these tickets. They will cost three thousand taka,” said the ticket seller. [Dhaka Board-2019]

Answer: The ticket seller respectfully asked the stranger where he (S) liked to go. The stranger replied that he (S) liked to go to Cox’s Bazar. The ticket seller again asked the stranger how many tickets he (S) needed. He (S) replied that he (S) would buy five tickets. The ticket seller told him (S) to take those tickets. He added that they would cost three thousand taka.

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